Tuesday, February 4, 2020
POWER,AUTHORITY, AND INFLUENCE (CASE) - Essay Example Although man is inherently strong, a woman's ability to apply her instincts in times of conflict could be an advantage when in the process of decision making. In fact, the women of this generation are more sophisticated and this is proven by their existence as top officials in organizations with different specializations. The Ã¢â¬Å"Woman and Men, Work and PowerÃ¢â¬ article talks about women empowerment at work. It features some women and their different stories of success in their chosen careers. In spite of the many obstacles and criticisms, they have managed to stay focused and goal-oriented. They are given the privilege to exercise authority in their respected organizations that is through the legitimate power that is vested to them. A top position in a company would give one the legitimate power, the formal power to exercise authority (Heinemann, 2008, p. 35). They are determined leaders but are distinguished by their opposing belief when it comes to the method and principles that they consider in their practice of power and on how they use this power to influence those who are under them.
Monday, January 27, 2020
Product Profile of a Plastic Shopping Bag (HDPE) Samantha Pearson Plastic shopping bags/carry bags are used extensively in todaysÃ¢â¬â¢ world. They are produced in many different sizes and colours, determined by its purpose and marketing campaign of the purchasing firm/industry. Carry bags are made of plastic that is flexible and relatively tough1. The plastic is identified as High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), indicated by the Voluntary Plastic Container Coding System2 (used to identify different plastics for recycling) on the carry bag itself. High Density Polyethylene is listed as 2 on the coding system2. How HDPE is made Polyethylene is made of monomers of ethylene. Monomers of ethylene are obtained from petroleum through a cracking process or by modifying natural gas such as methane or ethane3. Polyethylene can be made into three different types of polymers under different conditions, namely High Density Polyethylene, Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE). High Density Polyethylene is produced from petroleum and under low pressure conditions (pressure of about 10-80atm) 3 whereas Low Density Polyethylene is produced under high pressure conditions. At the higher end of the low pressure and higher temperatures (about 80atm and 60-200Ã °C) a Phillips catalyst is used to create an active site for polymerisation6. The process that uses the Phillips catalyst is known as the Phillip Process. The Phillips process was made industrial by Phillips Petroleum Company in 19614. A Phillips catalyst is a highly active catalyst made of chromium oxide on silica with a high surface area. The active site is the chromium carbon bond where the transitional metal (chromium) oxidation state is reduced by a reaction with olefin (a synthetic fibre made from polyethylene) 5 which makes the active site more reactive4. A Phillips catalyst is prepared before it enters the reactor due to the complexity of the silica support that needs to be the correct structure for optimum polymerisation5. In a Phillips process plant an ethylene feed stream is fed into a reactor with a stream of diluted pre-made catalyst. Polymerisation takes place in the reactor and exit s as a slurry. The slurry is then dried and pellets are collected at the end4. The advantage of the Phillips process is that the catalyst does not have to be deactivated or removed from the slurry as the silica base increases the activity of the catalyst and all of the catalyst reacts with the monomer ethylene4. Polyethylene with less branching is produced in this process when compared to the Zeigler Natta catalyst process4. At the lower end of the low pressure and lower temperature (about 1-10atm and 60-70Ã °C) a Ziegler Natta catalyst is used6. A Ziegler Natta catalyst is a combination of a transition metal compound from Groups IV to VII and a co-catalyst made of an organometallic compound from Groups I to III. In general titanium tetrachloride or titanium (III) chloride and a trialkylaluminum is used7. The catalyst, like the Phillips catalyst, also needs a support with high surface area; magnesium chloride, magnesium chloride or silica as they maximise the surface area and therefore the active sites on the catalyst7. The Zeigler Natta catalyst is prepared in the same reactor as the polymerisation occurs4. In this process; an ethylene feed stream is fed into a reactor with feed streams of metal alkyls and Group IV to VI metals (Titanium) forming the catalyst on its support in the reactor. Slurry exits the reactor where the catalyst is deactivated (to stop chainsÃ¢â¬â¢ reacting together which keeps t he molecular weight distribution fairly constant). The slurry is then dried and power is collected at the end4. In industry today High Density Polyethylene is produced by slurry polymerisation with a silica base catalyst and the Phillips process is used more often than the Ziegler Natta catalyst process4. Polymerisation Mechanism Polymerisation occurs as a free radical chain-growth reactions. Chain growth reactions occur as successive linking of monomer molecules to the end of the growing chain8 and occur in three stages. Stage one is the initiation stage where a radical reacts with ethylene to produce a monomer radical to continue the reaction8: RÃ¢â¬ ¢ + H2C=CH2 Ã¢â â R-H2C-H2CÃ¢â¬ ¢ [1.1] The rate of initiation is defined by the rate equation: [1.2] Where f is the initiator efficiency, [I] is the molar concentration of the initiator and [MÃ¢â¬ ¢] is the total concentration of all the chain radicals and kd is the rate constant9. Stage two is the propagation stage where monomer radical adds to another monomer radical. The active centre moves to the end of the chain continuously and there is only one active centre at a given time8: R-H2C-H2CÃ¢â¬ ¢ + H2C=CH2 Ã¢â â R-H2C-H2C-H2C-H2CÃ¢â¬ ¢[1.3] The rate of propagation is defined by the rate equation: [1.4] Stage three is the termination stage where chain growth is ended either by two radicals adding together or disproportionation where an atom transfers to another chain9. The rate of termination is defined by the rate equation: [1.5] The overall structure of High Density Polyethylene is: Figure 1: Structure of Polyethylene10 Figure 2: Structural Formula of Polyethylene10 Morphology of HDPE and how it suits a carry bag application High Density Polyethylene is very few short branches, if any. This results in the polymer being more crystalline than amorphous and in some areas of the polymer, it may be crystalline. The glass transition temperature (when the material becomes amorphous) of HDPE is -100Ã °C and the melting transition temperature (when the material turns to a liquid phase) is 130Ã °C11. These temperatures make HDPE an ideal polymer to make carry bags out of as the temperature that it is used in is never/rarely over and below these ranges. HDPE has significantly different properties to other polymers made in similar ways (LDPE and LLDPE). HDPE is flexible, translucent, and weatherproof; a good resistance to chemicals, relatively tough (has a tensile strength of 0.20-0.40 N/mm2)1. HDPE has a thermal coefficient of expansion of 100-20010-6 and a density of between 0.944 and 0.965g/cm3.1 The properties above are all suited for the application of High Density Polyethylene carry bags. A good tensile strength allows for relatively heavy objects to be placed into the bag without it breaking, small amounts of heat does not change its properties, it is weatherproof, allowing it to get wet with no changes to its properties, the flexibility allows for easy use, storage and functionality whereby it can be cut to create handles. A translucent appearance allows for it the plastic to be coloured as the produces seem fit which they can use for advertising purposes and make the final product aesthetically appealing if its purpose needs to be. How the finished product is made High Density Polyethylene pellets are sold by the firm that owns the plant to a manufacturer that produces plastic shopping bags/carry bags. The pellets are melted and mixed until they are completely homogenous mixture. The mixture is then heated to above 350Ã °C in a furnace12. The melted mixture vaporises into a tube made of the same mixture (but solid) situated above the furnace and gradually cools down the higher up the tube the vapour gets, where it condenses. Rollers flatten out the tube resulting in a film thin HDPE. While in the rolling area of the process, the film is cut to the desired/required thickness and collected on a roll. The thickness of the roll of thin plastic film is dependent on the manufacturing specifications (each roll roughly produces 35000 bags12) and is cut and a new roll starts forming automatically. The completed roll moves onto printing, where the thin film gets a specific colour/pattern dependent on the consumer. Alcohol based ink (which has to keep flowing to retain its viscosity rate Ã¢â¬â to ensure the same concentration is used and all the bags are identical) is used to print on these thin films12. Ink is transferred onto the film by ink rollers. Once printing is done, it is once again rolled up. The printed film then moves to another department where it is cut into the specified sizes and a machine with a punch, punches holes on the one side to make handles. And a sealing machine binds the edges of the bag together through heat12. Additives added to the final product In some cases to increase the tensile strength of the plastic (for heavy duty carry bags), Low Density Polyethylene may be added to the pellets of HDPE during the melting stage12. Alcohol based ink is added to give the product aesthetic appeal. Biodegradable additives such as prodegradant concentrates (PDCÃ¢â¬â¢s) 13 which are metal compounds which help the oxidation process of degrading plastic, added to make plastic bags more environmentally friendly. Due to the application of the product, additives such as UV stabilisers are not needed and plasticisers are not needed due to the flexibility property HDPE already has. Alternative materials to make the product Due to polymers being an environmental hazard, shopping bags/carry bags have been made with brown paper (paper bags). However this does not have the desired properties as they break easily and are not weatherproof and they do not have any chemical resistance to them. Advantages of using HDPE High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is a polyethylene thermoplastic. Thermoplastics soften, when heated, to a liquid and flow and harden, when cooled, to a solid. They can undergo this heating and cooling cycle (curing process) which little to no change in the final product Ã¢â¬â the process is reversible as no chemical bonds are formed or broken14. This results in the plastic being easily recycled. The product can be aesthetically modified. Remoulding and reshaping can be done to them14. Weatherproof and chemically resistant High-impact resistance Light weight Disadvantages of using HDPE HDPE is not biodegradable. Due to their light weight they can blow away in the wind and travel relatively far, causing pollution and many environmental hazards to living organisms. If heated they will melt Thermoplastics tend to me more expensive than thermosets14 Recycling HDPE needs an economic incentive as it can be more expensive to recycle plastic than to make new ones2. References British Plastics Federation. (2015). Polyethylene (High Density) HDPE. Available: http://www.bpf.co.uk/plastipedia/polymers/HDPE.aspx. Last accessed 2015/05/20. P Gaylard. (2009). Lecture 1. Polymer Science. University of Witwatersrand. p. 5, 27. P Lepoutre. The Manufacture of Polyethylene. Available: http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/polymers/10J.pdf. Last accessed 2015/05/20. Buffalo School. High Density Polyethylene. Available: http://wwwcourses.sens.buffalo.edu/ce435/Polyethylene/CE435Kevin.htm. Last accessed 2015/05/20. KBR. (2015). Olefins. Available: http://www.kbr.com/Technologies/Olefins/. Last accessed 2015/05/20. P Gaylard. (2009). Lecture 10. Polymer Science. University of Witwatersrand. p. 3. P Gaylard. (2009). Lecture 8. Polymer Science. University of Witwatersrand. p. 9-12. P Gaylard. (2009). Lecture 2. Polymer Science. University of Witwatersrand. p. 3. P Gaylard. (2009). Lecture 6. Polymer Science. University of Witwatersrand. p. 23-33. Macrog. Polyethylene. Available: http://pslc.ws/macrog/pe.htm Last accessed 2015/05/20. Michigan State University. (2013). Polymers. Available: http://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/VirtTxtJml/polymers.htm. Last accessed 2015/05/20. Discovery Channel (2010). How itÃ¢â¬â¢s made Plastic Bag Episode. Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CfL5xl2N1Q Last Accessed: 2015/05/20 Maria Trimarchi Vicki M. Giuggio. (2009). Top 10 Eco-friendly Substitutes for Plastic. Available: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-tech/sustainable/5-plastic-substitutes.htm#page=3. Last accessed 2015/05/20 Mordor Plastics. (2015). Thermosets vs Thermoplastics. Available: http://www.modorplastics.com/thermoset-vs-thermoplastics. Last accessed 2015/05/20. 2015
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Does a Supportive Patient-Therapist Relationship Enhance Clinical Improvement? Kaptchuk (2008), Components of Placebo Effect: Randomised Controlled Trial in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. (PRO) Argument 1: Kaptchuk (2008) suggested that placebo effects (non-specific effects) include three components: a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s response to observation and assessment, the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s response to the administration of placebo treatment, and the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s response to the patient-practitioner interaction. Kaptchuk (2008) found that the symptoms of IBS patients in the condition with placebo treatment and supportive patient-therapist relationship ameliorated the most across all measures compared to patients with having only observation and the patients with only placebo treatment. Thus he claimed that a supportive patient-therapist relationship is the most potent component of placebo effects. Argument 2: After three and six weeks, only in the condition with placebo treatment and supportive patient-therapist relationship, the symptom severity score of 60% patients decreased 50. Also Kaptchuk (2008) found that after six weeks, the change in life quality of patient in condition with only observation and the life quality of patient in condition with placebo treatment was similar, but the life quality change of patient with placebo treatment and supportive patient-therapist relationship was observable. So Kaptchuk (2008) suggested that a supportive patient-therapist relationship can enhance clinical improvement. Argument 3: Kaptchuk (2008) also compared these IBS patients to the patients who received IBS drug treatment. He found that the patients with placebo treatment and supportive relationship had comparable symptom relief as those who with drug treatment. His finding was only applied to IBS patients with supportive patient-therapist relationship, thus he indicated that a supportive patient-therapist relationship could enhance the efficiency of clinical treatment. Critique (or Strength): The result of the study done by Kaptchuk (2008) clearly demonstrated the importance of supportive patient-therapist relationship in medical treatment. However, Kaptchuk conducted the study on IBS patients, because he believed that placebo effects are most likely to be demonstrable in disorders defined by subjective symptoms. As Kaptchuk (2008) stated in limitation that he did not know if his finding could be applied to other illnesses, I also think that if Kaptchuk conducted his study on patients with the disease that has external causes, the results will be more convincing. One of important causes of IBS is stress, a subjective etiology. Thus a supportive patient-therapist relationship may have greater influence on IBS patient than the patient with other diseases, like flu.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
NTUC FairPrice is a social enterprise of Singapore National Trades Union Congress (SNTUC), the only trade union centre in Singapore. Founded in 1973, the vision of the organization was to moderate the cost of living. NTUC FairPrice is now the largest supermarket chain in Singapore, they consist of 1.FairPrice Supermarkets 2.FairPrice Finest 3.Cheers 4.FairPrice Xtra, 5.FairPrice Xpress 6.FairPrice Online 7.providing their service to 300,000 odd customers daily (Superbands). IKEA IKEA was founded in Sweden in 1943. Their uniqueness lies in their design furniture for flat packs for self assembly, by the customers (IKEA, 2011). IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s business practice is known for cost control and continuous product development.IKEA is operating in 38 countries. Although IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s primary intention is to have its end users to transport the furniture by themselves, in Singapore, where many of its consumers may not have their own transport, they also offer delivery service. Procurement, Purchasing And Sourcing FairPrice Firstly, we take a look at FairpriceÃ¢â¬â¢s logistic processes, Procurement, purchasing and sourcing. Searching suppliers and conclude agreement Suppliers require meeting FairpriceÃ¢â¬â¢s product quality requirements especially for their cold chain management. It helped Fairprice and suppliers gain competitive advantage by contribute quality products for a long period to the demand customers as it gave positive effect on its revenue.For each product group, only limited number of suppliers can supply. Receiving stock requirement from NTUCÃ¢â¬â¢s stores They are IT enabled where stock requirement are sent to DC based on their inventory management in which stocks reaches its reorder point needs to start ordering new stocks. Purchasing orders with suppliers Tracking their orders, invoices and payments via SAP Ensuring delivery sent at DC/Stores Perishable products are sent directly to stores. Non-perishable products like butter, cheese are sent to DC. Processing consumer returns and non conformance To process non conformance in which suppliers fails to meet FairpriceÃ¢â¬â¢s product quality requirements in their product and dealing with returns in stores using Goods Returned Note. FairpriceÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement assures to have a long last and continuous relationship with their suppliers. IKEA All products from IKEA are manufactured according the designed code of conduct Ã¢â¬Å"The IKEA way on Purchasing Home Furnishing ProductsÃ¢â¬ (IWAY), as it require main IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with their suppliers. All suppliers must achieve the requirements.IKEA sources internationally with 5 countries which is China, Italy, Poland, Sweden, Germany. Their 2 main focus is to increase sustainability of their suppliers and increase uses of sustainable raw materials. IKEA aims building long term relationship with suppliers that share same values. They focus to encourage suppliers having developments become sustainable and independent of IKEA presence by committing to IWAY.IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s auditorÃ¢â¬â¢s visits suppliers regularly to assure that IWAYÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements are met.The compliance and monitoring group (CMG) ensures that same audit requirements are used worldwide. There are 4 major categories of suppliers which is Home Furnishing with 13,800 suppliers, Food with 76 suppl iers, catalogue with 50 suppliers and Transport service with 263 providers. IKEA purchased products both regionally and globally so as to have low price with high quality.They have a purchasing unit called IKEA component in which develops raw materials and components for their product and acts as sub-supplier to IKEA suppliers manufacturing finished products. Inventory Management Fairprice The second logistic process that we are going to look into is the Inventory management. Fairprice and Ikea have designed their inventory management in a way that it will reduce costs and positively impact the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s return on investment. Fairprice has 2 warehouses and they only hold finished goods in their warehouse. This enables the company to largely reduce the time Fairprice will need to hold the inventory. Inventory cost such as carrying cost and risk cost will be reduce. FairpriceÃ¢â¬â¢s inventory management adopts the push approach. The stocks from each outlets will reach a certain stock level where the store staff will make the orders to the GLS (Grocery Logistics of Singapore). GLS will have enough time to consolidate all order from different outlets and enables them to make lesser trips for delivery, thus save the delivery cost and also prevent a stock out situation. IKEA IKEA adopts a special inventory whereby they manufacture their products by a push approach. The operational forecast and the tactical forecast are combined to create a final forecasts on store levels which will be aggregated, reconciled and compared with the same frames based on the retail and distribution services forecast group level. IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s store operations focuses on the ParetoÃ¢â¬â¢s law by supporting high-flow facilities and low-flow warehouse that are more manual. In its high-flow warehouses, IKEA employs automatic storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS) to drive down its costs-per-touch. IKEA have large bins, which is sufficient enough to cover sales for one day as what is sold is captured by Point of Sales (POS) system and what comes into the store is also known via Warehouse Management System (WMS). Thus, very little cycle counting is done. However, IKEA is able to detect any abnormalities. For example, when the system expects a certain volume of a particular product to have been sold during a two day period and less products was actually sold, the system will trigger and will direct in-store logistics to head to the location to do manual checks. With this process and system, it enables the right goods to be in the store with higher certainty as compared to the traditional retail forecasting/replenishment process. Warehousing and Distribution Fairprice The third process is warehouses and distribution. FairPrice faced problems till 1993 as suppliers used to deliver their products to Fairprice stores directly. This recorded up to 200 deliveries everyday with more than 30,000 products to managed and their distribution system were unproductive and was prone to errors. After 1993, FairpriceÃ¢â¬â¢s manage the Grocery Logistic of Singapore(GLS) Distribution Centre which is central distribution centre(DC) .GLS manages 2 distribution centres at Penjuru and JooKoon. In 2002, Fresh Food Distribution Centre(FFDC) is FairpriceÃ¢â¬â¢s centralized refrigerated DC to implement only fresh food items which they need right temperature to kept fresh. This allowed Fairprice improvise their supply chain management of these perishable products through a better temperature management control. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s essential knowing the temperature for perishable products. Products like milk, chilled pork and dairy products are delivered directly to the stores b y suppliers to avoid spoilage. There are 6 warehouse handled under FFDC with different controlled temperatures ranges between -20 to 18 degree Celsius. The temperature in each of the warehouse is controlled and observed assuring that products are kept safe at the right temperatures. This enables NTUC Fairprice increases its efficiency and manage its supply chain as moving stocks faster helps maintain the freshness and improve quality of products. They provide proper infrastructure to maximize storage management and able to improvise the process of handling the fresh food, especially with the right temperature therefore reducing spoilage. By having Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) certified, they devote maintaining good standard food safety and hygiene in DC. They operate 7 days a week and deliver more than 28 million cartons to the stores per year.
Friday, January 3, 2020
HeroÃ¢â¬â¢s of Ancient Literature When surveying the nature and work of Gilgamesh, Rama and Odysseus, all of them have the main characteristics that qualify them as heroes. These heroesÃ¢â¬â¢ were determined to do what was right for their town and their families and were set on following their dreams that they had set for themselves. These heroes were looked up to and respected by the people that surrounded them. They were needed because they gave people something to seek for and provide as a positive figure. A true hero is someone who shows and presents faithful qualities and is a respectful person. Gilgamesh was the king and the leader of Uruk. He was also the role model of all the other men and even the women; they wanted to be like him. In the story of Gilgamesh it reveals two important things. The first thing is the ambition and passion to observe the GilgameshÃ¢â¬â¢s importance and greatness. The second thing was the understanding and the learning from the mistakes that he made because everybody is bound to make mistakes in their life. Gilgamesh was a powerful man and decided that he wanted to build a very strong wall around the entire city to protect his friends and family. The people loved this wall and agreed that it would be good protection barriers for them. He was an outstanding builder. He was a very brave man who was always had a fair answer on opinions. Gilgamesh was two-thirds god and one third mortal he thinks of himself as a god like man. Along the way Gilgamesh runsShow MoreRelatedExamples Of Archetypes In Homers Odyssey1292 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmusic, lit erature and several other forms of entertainment. In fact, The Odyssey, a prominent piece of writing, contains many archetypes. The Odyssey is a 3,000-year-old epic written by Homer in Ancient Greece. It describes the adventures of Odysseus. As well as being found in The Odyssey, archetypes are evident throughout Greek culture. These archetypes depict the ideals and beliefs of the Ancient Greeks. Through HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s use of archetypes in The Odyssey, the reader gains insights into Ancient GreekRead MoreExamples Of Archetypes In The Odyssey1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmusic, literature and several other forms of entertainment. In fact, The Odyssey, a prominent piece of writing, contains many archetypes. The Odyssey is a 3,000 year-old epic written by Homer in Ancient Greece. It describes the adventures of Odysseus. As well as being found in The Odyssey, archetypes are evident throughout Greek culture. These archetypes depict the ideals and beliefs of the Ancient Greeks. Through Home rÃ¢â¬â¢s use of archetypes in The Odyssey, the reader gains insights about Ancient GreekRead MoreThe Heroes Of The Epic Of Gilgamesh1215 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesarchetypes from prehistory to present. In modern times, the prominent heroes in literature and media are that of Harry Potter, Superman, Wonder Woman, and much more. There is good reason for this. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s sense, heroes and heroines are the epitome of what humans want in themselves. Noble, kind, selfless; these are all traits that embody the modern hero. This was not always the case, however. In ancient literature, the heroes are not good role models, most of the time. Gilgamesh in The Epic ofRead MoreThe Epic of Gilgamesh1193 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhat Meets The Eye In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s day and age, literature and media have ample effect on how our society influences individuals. Women are perceived as sexual objects, but have the ability to persuade and influence the male character in literature. The Epic of Gilgamesh portrays the significance ancient Mesopotamian Literature has made on the social image that women possess pertaining to sexuality and appearances to the public eye in modern culture. In Gilgamesh, the harlot Shamhat held a reputationRead MoreDevine Interaction: Greek Mythology Essay1398 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn Greek mythology and literature, the Gods are always present in some shape or form. It has been recorded in ancient Greek literature that the Gods interacted with mortal humans quite often. Nothing would change a mortal humanÃ¢â¬â¢s life more than interacting with the Gods. What is the reason for such events? The Olympian Gods constantly intervene with the mortals, but what is the cause? The Gods show their power over mortal men through divine interaction, physically and psychologically. The GodsRead MoreMary Shelleys Frankenstein1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRepentance and stubbornness A hero is someone who remains seen in literature as a person with great courage and strength, yet though not always the case. The hero usually takes risk for the greater good. The Romantic hero becomes a type of literary idol with different morals. They are passionate about what they love, becoming obsessed with their newfound passion and become determined to perfect at what they do. They eventually become tragically doomed through creating their own individual moralRead MoreEssay on Ancient Greek Contributions602 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAncient Greek Contributions Ancient Greece forged many of the contributions seen in western civilizations. One of the most influential contributions is literature. Those contributions where very important then and still are today. The importance of Greek literature is found when looking at the texts of western civilization. Greek writers created the form and foundation for later writings. By opening Greece to the idea of writing, literature introduced new forms of entertainment, record keepingRead MoreArchetypes In Ancient Greek Culture879 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesare in ancient literature. The connections ,archetypes, can be found in the adventurous book The Odyssey. Ancient Greek culture is brought up by Homer through archetypes. These archetypes help connect one another over time. In the Odyssey, topics such as terrifying monsters , love tests, and an unstoppable hero are all related to ancient Greek culture. The Odyssey shows archetypes that also reveal this culture. Three archetypes found are monsters, loyalty, and a hero, which shows the ancient GreekRead MoreArchetypes In The Odyssey868 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrarely found, happen to be found in ancient literature. The connections ,archetypes, can be found i n the adventurous book The Odyssey. Ancient Greek culture is brought up by Homer through archetypes. In the Odyssey, topics such as terrifying monsters , love tests, and an unstoppable hero are all related to ancient Greek culture. The Odyssey shows archetypes that also reveal this culture. Three archetypes found are monsters, loyalty, and a hero, which shows the ancient Greek culture for modern readersRead MoreGreek Mythology And Mythology Of The Iliad, Oedipus Rex And Others1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCultures have long been shaped by mythology and religion. The impacts of ancient cultures in particular are felt worldwide through a variety of mediums. Others have referenced ancient cultures for a long time, in hopes of better understanding them. Examples of this have been seen throughout the world, especially in Greek culture. The ancient Greeks had a rich culture, which they used often in their works; examples of this are seen in the Iliad, Oedipus Rex and others. The existence of Greek mythology
Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Literature Review for Obesity Collin M Rofshus University of South Dakota Student December 12, 2014 Author Note Collin Rofshus, Department of Health Sciences, University of South Dakota Collin Rofshus is now a junior at the University of South Dakota. This paper fulfills the critical writing graduate component of the course HSC 440, Major Issues in Health and Human Services. Correspondence concerning this paper should be addressed to Collin Rofshus, Collin.Rofshus@coyotes.usd.edu. #1 Is Ideal Body Image Related to Obesity and Lifestyle Behaviors in African-American Adolescents? A peer-review by Chen and Wang (2013), Is Ideal Body Image Related to Obesity and Lifestyle Behaviors in African-American Adolescents, is carried out by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Illinois at Chicago and John Hopkins University Bloomberg School of public health. Chen is a MD of the profession pathology. Pathology is the study of understanding if oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body image can correlate to obesity or Vis versa. Wang plays an important researcher in the study due to the fact he was the founding director of the Johns Hopkins Global Center on Childhood Obesity and also is affiliated with the Obesity Society (TOS). Given the qualifications of the authors, the source of research is a credible source. The purpose of the study is to understand connections between ideal body image (IBI) and the prevalence rate of obesity. Obesity is becoming a worldwide issue, however,Show MoreRelatedChildhood Obesity And Its Effects On Children And Adolescents1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA: Literature Review Many children living in the world are well nourished and consume foods that contain sufficient amounts of protein, carbohydrate, fat and micronutrients in order to meet their nutritional requirements. However, there has been a downfall of recommended dietary standards considerably fallen short within childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s diets. Furthermore, an insignificant diet as well as physical inactivity, results in an energy imbalance and can lead to a major social issue of childhood obesity. TheRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Growing Problem1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDid you know that obesity has become such a Ã¢â¬ËgrowingÃ¢â¬â¢ quandary that for the first time ever todayÃ¢â¬â¢s children are expected to have a life expectancy that is shorter than their parents (Gance-Cleveland, Gilbert, Kopanos, Gilbert, 2009, p. 72)? Obesity in children and adolescents has become a worldwide epidemic, increasing every year. In fact, childhood obesity in the United States (US) has increased to 17%, which has nearly tripled the prevalence of obesity in the last three decades (Center forRead MoreThe Relationship Between Ethnicities And Obesity1506 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMany studies have conducted significant research on the relationship between ethnicities and obesity. However, only a few studies have done research on Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) population and the increasing rates of obesity amongst these indigenous communities. Numerous studies have grouped the NHPI population with the Ã¢â¬Å"AsianÃ¢â¬ population in most demographic and health surveys, which fabricates the health status from these studies to portray NHPIÃ¢â¬â¢s as a healthy population. AccordingRead MoreThe Health Risks Of Obesity Essay1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Obesity is one of the most significant health concerns that both children and adults in the USA are facing today. It can be defined as a condition of having too much fat in the adipose tissue of the body to the extent that it impairs body health, and is different from overweight which implies having too much body weight. This is because the weight of an overwieight person can be as a result of body muscle, fat, bone and water. However, the two terms imply that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s weightRead MoreThe Health Belief Model Of The United States1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages 3. Overview of the Health Belief Model The Health Belief model is a psychological construct that is used to predict health behavior (see Figure 1). The two components of the model that are used to predict behavior are the perception of the threat and the perception of the benefits and barriers to taking action to reduce the threat. The perception of the threat is composed of two elements: the perception of seriousness of the threat and the perception of the susceptibility to the threat (SharafkhaniRead MoreThe Incidence of Childhood Inactive Behavior Growing at an Alarming Rate1750 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction/Overview It is accepted that the incidence of childhood inactive behavior is increasing at a disturbing rate. The physical activity level and health behavior of the youth population has the capability to be a valuable instrument in countering this undesired behavior and the obesity pandemic as well as lowering all-cause mortality (Tudor-Lock et al., 2011). According to the center for Disease Control and Prevention, childhood obesity rates have doubled among children since 1980 (McNamara et al., 2010)Read MoreEssay on Does Increased Daytime Sleep Correlate to Obesity?792 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDue to the increasing global problem of obesity, the authors sought to analyze the relationship between total sleep time (TST) and its impact on body mass index (BMI) among adolescents. The study, which took place from October 2006 through April 2007, assessed the relationship between total sleep time, the caloric intake of healthy adolescents, and other related factors such as hunger, food cravings, an d satiety. One possible cause of obesity was attributed to the unexpected association betweenRead MoreLifestyle Interventions For Managing Obesity1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLifestyle interventions for managing obesity in older adults INTRODUCTION Obesity is condition of being abnormal with excess of accumulated fat in the adipose tissue of the body to the extent which increases the health risk, illness and may lead to morality. An important cause of body fat mass is the association between energy taken and energy spent. A person becomes obese when he/she consumes more calories than they burn. Calories are necessary in orderRead MoreThe Examination of the Importance of Healthy Eating and Physical Activities in Raleigh, NC Schools844 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesProblem Background of Obesity Obesity has become a major public health issue. Healthy eating and daily physical activity play a significant role in preventing chronic diseases, such as a stroke, heart disease and cancer. These are the three leading causes of death among people under 18. The chronic disease risk factors are related to obesity. Obesity is defined as a medical condition in which excess body fat has accrued to an extent that may be a negative effect on health. Obesity in childhood cannotRead MoreKnowledge and Perception of Parents Towards Risk of Obesity in Their Preschool Children: Literature Review1308 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Literature Knowledge and perception of parents towards risk of obesity in their preschool children Student Id: Contents Literature Review 1 Barriers that parents encounter over the choice of food for their preschool child 2 Parental concerns in engaging their preschool child in physical activities 3 References 5 Appendix 6 Literature Review A major health concern of parents today is the obesity problem in children. It has been seen globally that obesity problems are increasing
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
The Bluest Eye, by Toni Morrison, encompasses the themes of youth, gender, and race. The African American Civil Rights Movement had recently ended at the time the novel was written. In the book, Morrison utilizes a first-person story to convey her views on racial inequality. The protagonist and her friends find themselves in moments where they are filled with embarrassment and have a wish to flee such events. Since they are female African Americans, they are humiliated in society. One of MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s essential arguments is on the theme of inequity. In The Bluest Eye, Morrison implies that American culture induces the discrimination that occurs amongst the minority groups in the United States. Before the publication of The Bluest Eye, there were many other works that explored the concept of discrimination in our society. Anais Nin, Adrienne Rich, and Virginia Woolf serve as some of the key philosophers of this time. By examining and correlating MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s novel to other pi eces of literature, a poetic insight is found in the contents of the book. These poems provide the reader with a different perspective on the themes presented. Morrison utilizes this feature in her own writing, weaving her ideas with excerpts from the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s primer Dick and Jane. Morrison does not base her content from the excerpts, but utilizes them to strengthen her beliefs. Claudia, an African American girl, faces incompetence due to her race, gender, and age. She feels powerless, wishing an escapeShow MoreRelatedThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof The Bluest Eye, Toni Morrison, criticizes the danger of race discrimination for any kinds of situations with no exception. The purpose of the paper is explain how pervasive and destructive social racism was bound to happen in American society. The intended audiences are not only black people, but also other races had suffered racism until now. I could find out and concentrate on the most notable sym bols which are whiteness, blue eyes and the characterization while reading the novel. Toni MorrisonRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1587 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessaid, Ã¢â¬Å"We were born to die and we die to live.Ã¢â¬ Toni Morrison correlates to NelsonÃ¢â¬â¢s quote in her Nobel Lecture of 1993, Ã¢â¬Å"We die. That may be the meaning of life. But we do language. That may be the measure of our lives.Ã¢â¬ In Toni MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Bluest Eye, she uses language to examine the concepts of racism, lack of self-identity, gender roles, and socioeconomic hardships as they factor into a misinterpretation of the American Dream. Morrison illustrates problems that these issues provoke throughRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison956 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHistory of Slavery Influenced the Characters of The Bluest Eye Unlike so many pieces of American literature that involve and examine the history of slavery and the years of intensely-entrenched racism that ensued, the overall plot of the novel, The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison, does not necessarily involve slavery directly, but rather examines the aftermath by delving into African-American self-hatred. Nearly all of the main characters in The Bluest Eye who are African American are dominated by the endlessRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA standard of beauty is established by the society in which a person lives and then supported by its members in the community. In the novel The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison, we are given an extensive understanding of how whiteness is the standard of beauty through messages throughout the novel that whiteness is superior. Morrison emphasizes how this ideality distorts the minds and lives of African-American women and children. He emphasizes that in order for African-American wom en to survive in aRead MoreThe Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison1095 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSocial class is a major theme in the book The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison. Toni Morrison is saying that there are dysfunctional families in every social class, though people only think of it in the lower class. Toni Morrison was also stating that people also use social class to separate themselves from others and apart from race; social class is one thing Pauline and Geraldine admire.Claudia, Pecola, and Frieda are affected by not only their own social status, but others social status too - for exampleRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison2069 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesblack/whiteness. Specifically, white people were positioned at the upper part of the hierarchy, whereas, African Americans were inferior. Consequently, white people were able to control and dictate to the standards of beauty. In her novel, Ã¢â¬ËThe Bluest EyeÃ¢â¬â¢, Toni Morrison draws upon symbolism, narrative voice, setting and id eals of the time to expose the effects these standards had on the different characters. With the juxtaposition of Claudia MacTeer and Pecola Breedlove, who naively conforms to the barrierRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Toni Morrison is known for her prized works exploring themes and issues that are rampant in African American communities. Viewing Toni MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Bluest Eye from a psychoanalytical lens sheds light onto how, as members of a marginalized group, characterÃ¢â¬â¢s low self-esteem reflect into their actions, desires, and defense mechanisms. In her analysis of psychoanalytical criticism, Lois Tyson focuses on psychological defense mechanisms such as selective perception, selective memory, denialRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1462 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBildungsroman literature in the 20th century embodies the virtues of different authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ contexts and cultures, influencing the fictional stories of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives around the world.. The Bluest Eye is a 1970 publication by Toni Morrison set in 1940s Ohio in America, focal around the consequence of racism in an American community on the growth of a child, distinct in its use of a range of narrative perspectives. Annie John by Jamaica Kincaid is a novel set in post colonial Antigua, published in 1985Read MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison992 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSet in the 1940s, during the Great Depression, the novel The Bluest Eye, by Toni Morrison, illustrates in the inner struggles of African-American criticism. The Breedloves, the family the sto ry revolves around a poor, black and ugly family. They live in a two-room store front, which is open, showing that they have nothing. In the family there is a girl named Pecola Breedlove, she is a black and thinks that she is ugly because she is not white. PecolaÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Cholly Breedlove, goes through humiliatedRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1044 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the novel The Bluest Eye, Toni Morrison confirms the existence of racism within the African American community. Unbelievably, many African Americans suffer from what is termed internalized racism. Internalized racism produces the same effect as racial racism: feelings of worthlessness, inferiority, and unattractiveness. In addition, the effect can produce the opposite feelings: superiority, hatred, and feelings of self-worth. Pecola, an 11-year-old black girl, desires to have the physical characteristics